By Lauren M.F. Merlo, Li-san Wang, John W. Pepper (auth.), Randy Y. C. Poon MA, PhD (eds.)
Limiting genome replication to as soon as consistent with mobile cycle is key for keeping genome balance. even supposing polyploidization is of physiologically value for a number of really expert mobile varieties, irrelevant polyploidization is assumed to advertise aneuploidy and transformation. A turning out to be physique of proof exhibits that the surveillance mechanisms that hinder polyploidization are usually perturbed in cancers. development some time past a number of years has unraveled a few of the underlying rules that keep genome balance. This booklet brings jointly leaders of the sector to evaluation topics when it comes to polyploidization and cancer.
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12,13 Some other proteins involved in the function of spindle checkpoint have been characterized only in higher eukaryotes. 16 Activation of the Spindle Checkpoint Signaling When the chromosome is not properly attached to the spindle, the spindle checkpoint is activated to inhibit the progression from metaphase to anaphase. In the spermatocyte of mantids, the cell is arrested in metaphase forever in the presence of an improperly attached free X chromosome. 18 These experiments showed that a single kinetochore not under tension generates a sufficient signal to inhibit the onset of anaphase.
Our discussion emphasizes findings in vertebrate cells although we have attempted to highlight important contributions from other model systems. Cytokinesis Occurs in Multiple Stages The process of cytokinesis can be divided into four stages including specification of the cleavage plane, ingression of the cleavage furrow, formation of the midbody and abscission (Fig. 1). Each stage is dependent on the proper execution of the prior stage and thus interference with any stage may result in cytokinesis failure.
124,125,135 These features make anillin ideally suited to crosslink the actomyosin and septin cytoskeletons within the contractile ring. Anillin may enhance the robustness of early stages of cytokinesis by promoting the anchoring of myosin in the vicinity of activated RhoA, favoring myosin phosphorylation. 136 Asymmetric ingression may be important in epithelia137 and embryos136,138 where it may serve a mechanical function, enhancing the robustness of cytokinesis. 127 Interestingly, whereas overexpression of anillin seems to have little phenotype in Drosophila S2 cells,129 overexpression of anillin in mammalian cells is very toxic,132 suggesting anillin could have important functions independent of cytokinesis.
Polyploidization and Cancer by Lauren M.F. Merlo, Li-san Wang, John W. Pepper (auth.), Randy Y. C. Poon MA, PhD (eds.)