Read e-book online Handbook of Modern Sensors: Physics, Designs, and PDF

By Jacob Fraden

ISBN-10: 0387007504

ISBN-13: 9780387007502

The Handbook's assurance of sensors is huge, starting from basic photodiodes to complicated units containing elements together. It bargains hard-to-find reference info at the homes of various fabrics and sensing parts and emphasizes units which are much less recognized, whose expertise continues to be being sophisticated, and whose use allows the size of variables that have been formerly inaccessible.

This booklet is ready units quite often referred to as sensors. The scope of this booklet is very large overlaying many various designs.

Contents
Preface
1 info Acquisition
2 Sensor Characteristics
three actual ideas of Sensing
four Optical elements of Sensors
five Interface digital Circuits
6 Occupancy and movement Detectors
7 place, Displacement, and Level
eight speed and Acceleration
nine strength, pressure, and Tactile Sensors
10 strain Sensors
eleven movement Sensors
12 Acoustic Sensors
thirteen Humidity and Moisture Sensors
14 mild Detectors
15 Radiation Detectors
sixteen Temperature Sensors
17 Chemical Sensors
18 Sensor fabrics and Technologies
Appendix
Index

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Extra info for Handbook of Modern Sensors: Physics, Designs, and Applications

Example text

6321. Sm e In other words, after an elapse of time equal to one time constant, the response reaches about 63% of its steady-state level. 5% and after three time constants it will be 95%. The cutoff frequency indicates the lowest or highest frequency of stimulus that the sensor can process. The upper cutoff frequency shows how fast the sensor reacts; the lower cutoff frequency shows how slow the sensor can process changing stimuli. 9B depicts the sensor’s response when both the upper and lower cutoff frequencies are limited.

A self-heating error may be specified when an excitation signal is absorbed by a sensor and changes its temperature by such a degree that it may affect its accuracy. For instance, a thermistor temperature sensor requires passage of electric current, causing heat dissipation within the sensor’s body. Depending on its coupling with the environment, the sensors’ temperature may increase due to a self-heating effect. This will result in errors in temperature measurement because the thermistor now acts as an additional spurious source of thermal energy.

We regard a sensor as a “black box” where we are concerned only with relationships between its output signal and input stimulus. 1 Transfer Function An ideal or theoretical output–stimulus relationship exists for every sensor. If the sensor is ideally designed and fabricated with ideal materials by ideal workers using ideal tools, the output of such a sensor would always represent the true value of the stimulus. The ideal function may be stated in the form of a table of values, a graph, or a mathematical equation.

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Handbook of Modern Sensors: Physics, Designs, and Applications by Jacob Fraden


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