By Silvio Garattini
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Extra info for Advances in Pharmacology and Chemotherapy Volume 14
1973) achieved 49% cure of S . mansoni infection with the same intramuscular dose, and no apparent cure rate dependence on age was recorded. After repeated treatment with hycanthone, the cure rates for S . haematobium andlor S . , 1973). In Uganda, Ongom (1971) treated 32 S. 0 mg/kg; jaundice was observed in 1 case. 5% and the egg output of most noncured patients was reduced nearly to zero. CHEMOTHERAPY OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS MANSONI 39 In Kenya, Rees et al. (1970), in a comparative study on S. 0 mg/kg), 73% of the patients provided negative results; with niridazole (25 mg/kg/day x 5 days), 27% and, with placebos, 22%.
Summing up, hycanthone is a hepatotoxic drug sometimes producing only elevation of transaminase levels, sometimes inducing jaundice and, in some patients causing, severe hepatic injury, such as yellow atrophy, with consequent death. A real estimation of the frequency of those side effects is not available so far. Mutagenic effects of hycanthone were initially detected by Hartman et al. (1971) on Salmonella and Escherichia coli T4 bacteriophage. , 1972; Rocha and Katz, 1973), malformation of snails (Souza and Katz, 1973), mutagenic CHEMOTHERAPY OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS MANSONI 41 effects on Neurospora crassa (Ong and de Serres, 1972) and on Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Igali and von Borstel, 1974).
For example, Jesus and Hernandez-Morales (1959) concluded that rectal biopsy was superior to stool examination. Meira (1951) showed that the percentage of positive cases depended on the clinical form of schistosomiasis, and Prata (1957) demonstrated that 10 stool examinations revealed twice as many relapse cases than a single rectal biopsy. , 1959, 1962). Periovular reactions performed with patient’s sera, after specific treatment, begin to decrease in intensity between day 60 and day 120, becoming negative, in most cases, after 6 months.
Advances in Pharmacology and Chemotherapy Volume 14 by Silvio Garattini